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A ciliopathy is a genetic disorder of the cellular cilia or the cilia anchoring structures, the basal bodies, or of ciliary function. Cilia are important in guiding the process of development, so abnormal ciliary function while an embryo is developing can lead to a set of malformations that can occur regardless of the particular genetic problem. The similarity of the clinical features of these developmental disorders means that they form a recognizable cluster of syndromes, loosely attributed to abnormal ciliary function and hence called ciliopathies. Regardless of the actual cause, it is clustering of a set of characteristic features which define whether a syndrome is a ciliopathy.
Bladder rupture (rupture of bladder, N32.4) may occur if the bladder is overfilled and not emptied. This can occur in the case of binge drinkers who have consumed large quantities of fluids, but are not conscious of the need to urinate due to stupor. This condition is very rare in women, but does occur. Signs and symptoms include localized pain and uraemia(poisoning due to reabsorbed waste)
Duplicated ureter or Duplex Collecting System is a congenital condition in which the ureteric bud, the embryological origin of the ureter, splits (or arises twice), resulting in two ureters draining a single kidney. It is the most common renal abnormality, occurring in approximately 1% of the population. The additional ureter may result in a ureterocele, or an ectopic ureter.